Genetic Moderation of Intervention Efficacy: Dopaminergic Genes, The Incredible Years, and Externalizing Behavior in Children.
- Author(s): Chhangur, Rabia R;
- Weeland, Joyce;
- Overbeek, Geertjan;
- Matthys, Walter;
- Orobio de Castro, Bram;
- van der Giessen, Danielle;
- Belsky, Jay
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12612
This study investigated whether children scoring higher on a polygenic plasticity index based on five dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, MAOA, and COMT) benefited the most from the Incredible Years (IY) parent program. Data were used from a randomized controlled trial including 341 Dutch families with 4- to 8-year-old children (55.7% boys) showing moderate to high levels of problem behavior. IY proved to be most effective in decreasing parent-reported (but not observed) externalizing behavior in boys (but not girls) carrying more rather than fewer dopaminergic plasticity alleles; this Gene × Intervention effect was most pronounced in the case of boys whose parents' manifested the most positive change in parenting in response to the intervention. These results proved robust across a variety of sampling specifications (e.g., intention to treat, ethnicity).