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Oral microbiome shifts during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Hormonal and Immunologic changes at play.

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Because of hormonal and immunologic changes, there are significant changes in the oral microbiome that emerge during pregnancy. Recent evidence further suggests that there is an association between the presence of periodontal disease and a pregnancy-associated oral dysbiosis. Although this oral dysbiosis and pathogenic periodontal bacteria are considered to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, it is still not clear how an oral dysbiosis during pregnancy can modulate oral diseases and birth outcomes. To develop preventive or therapeutic interventions, it is critical to understand the oral microbiome changes that emerge during pregnancy and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the present review, we summarize the current literature on normal changes in the oral microbiome that occur during pregnancy; the pathogenic changes in the oral microbiome believed to occur in association with adverse pregnancy outcomes; and the association between the placental microbiome and the oral microbiome.

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