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Gene-Environment Interaction in Parkinson's Disease: Coffee, ADORA2A, and CYP1A2.
- Author(s): Chuang, Yu-Hsuan;
- Lill, Christina M;
- Lee, Pei-Chen;
- Hansen, Johnni;
- Lassen, Christina F;
- Bertram, Lars;
- Greene, Naomi;
- Sinsheimer, Janet S;
- Ritz, Beate
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1159/000450855
Background and purposeDrinking caffeinated coffee has been reported to provide protection against Parkinson's disease (PD). Caffeine is an adenosine A2A receptor (encoded by the gene ADORA2A) antagonist that increases dopaminergic neurotransmission and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (gene: CYP1A2) metabolizes caffeine; thus, gene polymorphisms in ADORA2A and CYP1A2 may influence the effect coffee consumption has on PD risk.
MethodsIn a population-based case-control study (PASIDA) in Denmark (1,556 PD patients and 1,606 birth year- and gender-matched controls), we assessed interactions between lifetime coffee consumption and 3 polymorphisms in ADORA2A and CYP1A2 for all subjects, and incident and prevalent PD cases separately using logistic regression models. We also conducted a meta-analysis combining our results with those from previous studies.
ResultsWe estimated statistically significant interactions for ADORA2A rs5760423 and heavy vs. light coffee consumption in incident (OR interaction = 0.66 [95% CI 0.46-0.94], p = 0.02) but not prevalent PD. We did not observe interactions for CYP1A2 rs762551 and rs2472304 in incident or prevalent PD. In meta-analyses, PD associations with daily coffee consumption were strongest among carriers of variant alleles in both ADORA2A and CYP1A2.
ConclusionWe corroborated results from a previous report that described interactions between ADORA2A and CYP1A2 polymorphisms and coffee consumption. Our results also suggest that survivor bias may affect results of studies that enroll prevalent PD cases.
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