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Cervicofacial actinomycosis: a long forgotten infectious complication of immunosuppression - report of a case and review of the literature

  • Author(s): Kolm, Isabel
  • Aceto, Leonardo
  • Hombach, Michael
  • Kamarshev, Jivko
  • Hafner, Jurg
  • Urosevic-Maiwald, Mirjana
  • et al.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License
Abstract

Actinomycosis is a rare chronic granulomatous infection caused by Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria.We report a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis in an 86-year-old woman undergoing immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine and prednisone for rheumatoid arthritis. She underwent a dental treatment several months earlier. The diagnosis of culture-negative actinomycosis was based on histolopathology findings and the isolation of companion bacteria. The patient was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 3 months, which produced complete clearance of her cervicofacial actinomycosis.Our case points out the pitfalls of diagnostic procedures in actinomycosis and the ability of this rare disease to mimic other medical conditions.

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