Quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in commercial cows' milk from California by gas chromatography±triple quadruple mass spectrometry
- Author(s): Chen, X
- Lin, Y
- Dang, K
- Puschner, B
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170129
© 2017 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. We determined 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in eight different brands of commercial whole milk (WM) and fat free milk (FFM) produced and distributed in California. Congeners were extracted using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method, purified by gel permeation chromatography, and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all FFM andWM samples. The most prevalent PBDE congeners inWM were BDE-47 (geometric mean: 18.0 pg/mL, 0.51 ng/g lipid), BDE-99 (geometric mean: 9.9 pg/mL, 0.28 ng/g lipid), and BDE-49 (geometric mean: 6.0 pg/mL, 0.17 ng/g lipid). The dominant PCB congeners inWMwere PCB-101(geometric mean: 23.6 pg/mL, 0.67 ng/g lipid), PCB-118 (geometric mean: 25.2 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid), and PCB-138 (geometric mean: 25.3 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid). The sum of all 19 PCB congeners in FFM andWMwere several orders of magnitude below the U.S. FDA tolerance. The sum of PBDEs in milk samples suggest close proximity to industrial emissions, and confirm previous findings of elevated PBDE levels in California compared to other regions in the United States.
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