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Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

  • Author(s): Schulman, Alan H.
  • Yilmaz, Alper
  • Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman
  • Hsia, An-Ping
  • Oliveira, Antonio Costa de
  • Schnittger, Arp
  • Meyers, Blake C.
  • Chalhoub, Boulos
  • Barbazuk, Brad
  • Sun, Cheng
  • Dardick, Christopher D.
  • Sullivan, Christopher M.
  • Cass, Cynthia L.
  • Rokhsar, Dan
  • Garvin, David F.
  • Laudencia-Chingcuanco, Debbie
  • O'Connor, Devin
  • Inzé, Dirk
  • Idziak, Dominika
  • Bryant, Douglas W.
  • Chapman, Elisabeth J.
  • Pritham, Ellen
  • Grotewold, Erich
  • Lindquist, Erika
  • Murat, Florent
  • Harmon, Frank
  • You, Frank M.
  • Haberer, Georg
  • Tuskan, Gerald A.
  • Lazo, Gerard R.
  • May, Greg D.
  • Mouille, Gregory
  • Wu, Haiyan
  • Belcram, Harry
  • Gundlach, Heidrun
  • Scheller, Henrik V.
  • Priest, Henry D.
  • Höfte, Herman
  • Budak, Hikmet
  • Tice, Hope
  • Baxter, Ivan
  • Tanskanen, Jaakko
  • Carrington, James C.
  • Schnable, James
  • Thomson, James
  • Dvorak, Jan
  • Buchmann, Jan P.
  • Grimwood, Jane
  • Higgins, Janet
  • Chang, Jeff H.
  • Kimbrel, Jeffrey A.
  • Bragg, Jennifer N.
  • Schmutz, Jeremy
  • Pelloux, Jérome
  • Salse, Jerome
  • Harholt, Jesper
  • Wu, Jiajie
  • Ma, Jianxin
  • Lai, Jinsheng
  • Zhai, Jixian
  • Messing, Joachim
  • Rose, Jocelyn K. C.
  • Sedbrook, John C.
  • Vogel, John P.
  • Wright, Jonathan
  • Lail, Kathleen
  • Barry, Kerrie
  • Hematy, Kian
  • Jung, Ki-Hong
  • Mayer, Klaus
  • Bartley, Laura E.
  • Zhu, Liucun
  • Maia, Luciano da C.
  • Tyler, Ludmila
  • Mueller, Lukas A.
  • Sharma, Manoj K
  • Spannagl, Manuel
  • German, Marcelo
  • Heese, Maren
  • Byrne, Mary E.
  • Charles, Mathieu
  • Ganssmann, Matthias
  • Wang, Mei
  • Febrer, Melanie
  • Abrouk, Michael
  • Bevan, Michael
  • Bevan, Michael
  • Vega-Sanchez, Miguel
  • Luo, Ming-Cheng
  • Harmon-Smith, Miranda
  • Huo, Naxin
  • McKenzie, Neil
  • Jiang, Ning
  • Fahlgren, Noah
  • Anderson, Olin D.
  • Green, Pamela J.
  • Ronald, Pamela
  • Schnable, Patrick S.
  • Cao, Peijian
  • Ulvskov, Peter
  • Li, Pinghua
  • Sun, Qixin
  • Bruggmann, Remy
  • Vierstra, Richard D.
  • Sibout, Richard
  • Hasterok, Robert
  • Gurazada, Sai Guna Ranjan
  • Fox, Samuel E.
  • Hazen, Samuel P.
  • Lee, Sang-Jik
  • Givan, Scott A.
  • Rowe, Scott
  • Walsh, Sean
  • Filichkin, Sergei A.
  • Chen, Shan
  • Ouyang, Shuhong
  • Bodt, Stefanie De
  • Lucas, Susan
  • Mitros, Therese
  • Brutnell, Thomas
  • York, Thomas L.
  • Rattei, Thomas
  • Wicker, Thomas
  • Mockler, Todd C.
  • Michael, Todd
  • Unver, Turgay
  • Kalluri, Udaya C.
  • Wu, Wei
  • Belknap, William
  • Verelst, Wim
  • Yang, Xiaohan
  • Weng, Yiqun
  • Gu, Yong Q.
  • Cui, Yu
  • Hua, Zhihua
  • Liu, Zhiyong
  • et al.
Abstract

Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

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