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Biliary endoscopy in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis and its complications


Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, idiopathic, cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. It can affect individuals of all age groups and gender, has no established pharmacotherapy, and is associated with a variety of neoplastic (e.g. cholangiocarcinoma) and non-neoplastic (e.g. dominant strictures) hepatobiliary complications. Given these considerations, endoscopy plays a major role in the care of patients with PSC. In this review, we discuss and provide updates regarding endoscopic considerations in the management of hepatobiliary manifestations and complications of PSC. Where evidence is limited, we suggest pragmatic approaches based on currently available data and expert opinion.

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