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Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

  • Author(s): Chuang, CH
  • Ray, SC
  • Mazumder, D
  • Sharma, S
  • Ganguly, A
  • Papakonstantinou, P
  • Chiou, JW
  • Tsai, HM
  • Shiu, HW
  • Chen, CH
  • Lin, HJ
  • Guo, J
  • Pong, WF
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://doi.org/10.1038/srep42235
Abstract

© The Author(s) 2017. Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:N x) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH 2) 2 ]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:Nxsynthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in which each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp2-hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:Nx. The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.

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