Massive MIMO 1-Bit DAC Transmission: A low-complexity symbol scaling approach
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2018.2868369
We study multi-user massive multiple-input single-output systems and focus on downlink transmission for PSK modulation, where the base station employs a large antenna array with low-cost 1-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The direct combination of existing beamforming schemes with 1-bit DACs is shown to lead to an error floor at medium-to-high SNR regime, due to the coarse quantization of the DACs with limited precision. In this paper, based on the constructive interference, we consider both a quantized linear beamforming scheme where we analytically obtain the optimal beamforming matrix and a non-linear mapping scheme where we directly design the transmit signal vector. Due to the 1-bit quantization, the formulated optimization for the non-linear mapping scheme is shown to be non-convex. The non-convex constraints of the 1-bit DACs are first relaxed into convex, followed by an element-wise normalization to satisfy the 1-bit DAC transmission. We further propose a low-complexity symbol scaling scheme that consists of three stages, in which the quantized transmit signal on each antenna element is selected sequentially. Numerical results show that the proposed symbol scaling scheme achieves a comparable performance to the optimization-based non-linear mapping approach, while the corresponding performance-complexity tradeoff is more favorable for the proposed symbol scaling method.