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Exquisite Tumor Targeting by Salmonella A1-R in Combination with Caffeine and Valproic Acid Regresses an Adult Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenograft Mouse Model


Adult pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare and malignant mesenchymal tumor. Recently, we developed a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of adult pleomorphic RMS. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) A1-R combined with caffeine (CAF) and valproic acid (VPA) on the adult RMS PDOX. An adult pleomorphic RMS cell line was established from the PDOX model. Cell survival after exposure to CAF and VPA was assessed, and the IC50 value was calculated for each drug. The RMS PDOX models were randomized into five groups: untreated control; tumor treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA); tumor treated with CAF + VPA; tumor treated with S. typhimurium A1-R; and tumor treated with S. typhimurium A1-R + CAF + VPA. Tumor size and body weight was measured twice a week. VPA caused a concentration-dependent cytocidal effect. A synergistic effect of combination treatment with CAF was observed against the RMS cell line. For the in vivo study, all treatments significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with the untreated control. S. typhimurium A1-R combined with VPA and CAF was significantly more effective than CPA, VPA combined with CAF, or S. typhimurium A1-R alone and significantly regressed the tumor volume compared with day 0. These results suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R together with VPA and CAF could regresses an adult pleomorphic RMS in a PDOX model and therefore has important future clinical potential.

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