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A Comprehensive Safety Trial of Chimeric Antibody 14.18 With GM-CSF, IL-2, and Isotretinoin in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Following Myeloablative Therapy: Children's Oncology Group Study ANBL0931.



A phase 3 randomized study (COG ANBL0032) demonstrated significantly improved outcome by adding immunotherapy with ch14.18 antibody to isotretinoin as post-consolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (NB). This study, ANBL0931, was designed to collect FDA-required safety/toxicity data to support FDA registration of ch14.18.

Experimental design

Newly diagnosed high-risk NB patients who achieved at least a partial response to induction therapy and received myeloablative consolidation with stem cell rescue were enrolled to receive six courses of isotretinoin with five concomitant cycles of ch14.18 combined with GM-CSF or IL2. Ch14.18 infusion time was 10-20 h per dose. Blood was collected for cytokine analysis and its association with toxicities and outcome.


Of 105 patients enrolled, five patients developed protocol-defined unacceptable toxicities. The most common grade ≥ 3 non-hematologic toxicities of immunotherapy for cycles 1-5, respectively, were neuropathic pain (41, 28, 22, 31, 24%), hypotension (10, 17, 4, 14, 8%), allergic reactions (ARs) (3, 10, 5, 7, 2%), capillary leak syndrome (1, 4, 0, 2, 0%), and fever (21, 59, 6, 32, 5%). The 3-year event-free survival and overall survival were 67.6 ± 4.8% and 79.1 ± 4.2%, respectively. AR during course 1 was associated with elevated serum levels of IL-1Ra and IFNγ, while severe hypotension during this course was associated with low IL5 and nitrate. Higher pretreatment CXCL9 level was associated with poorer event-free survival (EFS).


This study has confirmed the significant, but manageable treatment-related toxicities of this immunotherapy and identified possible cytokine biomarkers associated with select toxicities and outcome. EFS and OS appear similar to that previously reported on ANBL0032.

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