Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Berkeley

UC Berkeley Previously Published Works bannerUC Berkeley

Exposing photo manipulation with inconsistent reflections


The advent of sophisticated photo editing software has made it increasingly easier to manipulate digital images. Often visual inspection cannot definitively distinguish the resulting forgeries from authentic photographs. In response, forensic techniques have emerged to detect geometric or statistical inconsistencies that result from specific forms of photo manipulation. In this article we describe a new forensic technique that focuses on geometric inconsistencies that arise when fake reflections are inserted into a photograph or when a photograph containing reflections is manipulated. This analysis employs basic rules of reflective geometry and linear perspective projection, makes minimal assumptions about the scene geometry, and only requires the user to identify corresponding points on an object and its reflection. The analysis is also insensitive to common image editing operations such as resampling, color manipulations, and lossy compression. We demonstrate this technique with both visually plausible forgeries of our own creation and commercially produced forgeries. © 2012 ACM.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View