Lateral Gene Transfer Shapes the Distribution of RuBisCO among Candidate Phyla Radiation Bacteria and DPANN Archaea
Published Web Locationhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy234
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is considered to be the most abundant enzyme on Earth. Despite this, its full diversity and distribution across the domains of life remain to be determined. Here, we leverage a large set of bacterial, archaeal, and viral genomes recovered from the environment to expand our understanding of existing RuBisCO diversity and the evolutionary processes responsible for its distribution. Specifically, we report a new type of RuBisCO present in Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacteria that is related to the archaeal Form III enzyme and contains the amino acid residues necessary for carboxylase activity. Genome-level metabolic analyses supported the inference that these RuBisCO function in a CO2-incorporating pathway that consumes nucleotides. Importantly, some Gottesmanbacteria (CPR) also encode a phosphoribulokinase that may augment carbon metabolism through a partial Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Based on the scattered distribution of RuBisCO and its discordant evolutionary history, we conclude that this enzyme has been extensively laterally transferred across the CPR bacteria and DPANN archaea. We also report RuBisCO-like proteins in phage genomes from diverse environments. These sequences cluster with proteins in the Beckwithbacteria (CPR), implicating phage as a possible mechanism of RuBisCO transfer. Finally, we synthesize our metabolic and evolutionary analyses to suggest that lateral gene transfer of RuBisCO may have facilitated major shifts in carbon metabolism in several important bacterial and archaeal lineages.