Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Diphacinone and Cholecalciferol (D+C) as a Potent Low-residue Rodenticide


Rodenticides such as brodifacoum are more potent than first-generation anticoagulants. However, their field, farm, and outdoor use in urban settings have been linked to bioaccumulation and non-target impacts for more than three decades. Product development strategies focused on baits that yield good control of pests without residue risks to wildlife are few. To fill this gap, a bait containing a combination of diphacinone at 0.005% and cholecalciferol at 0.06% (D+C bait) has been developed as a multispecies bait for NZ use, that is effective at killing rodents and also possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), which are resistant to the toxin effects of first-generation anticoagulants. This bait was approved by the NZ Environmental Protection Agency and the product registered by the NZ Ministry of Primary Industries in 2019. A new bait is being considered with a lower dose of cholecalciferol. A bait containing half or a quarter of the loading concentration of cholecalciferol would have an even better safety profile for rodent control alone. Cage trials indicate that cholecalciferol at 0.03% with diphacinone 0.005% is as effective as brodifacoum as a single exposure bait. Amounts of cholecalciferol as low as 0.015% significantly improve the effectiveness of diphacinone.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View