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Characteristics of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacterales Isolated from Dogs and Cats, 2011–2021


The rising prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales is a significant threat to animal and human health. This study aims to describe the clinical features, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and genotypic features of infections associated with ESBL-producing Enterobacterales in dogs and cats seen at a tertiary referral veterinary teaching hospital. Enterobacterales isolated from dogs and cats that underwent ESBL testing during the study period were identified using a search of the hospital antimicrobial susceptibility test software database. Medical records of confirmed ESBL isolates were reviewed, and the source of infection, clinical findings, and antimicrobial susceptibility were recorded. Genomic DNA from bacterial isolates was evaluated for antimicrobial resistance genes with whole genome sequencing. Thirty ESBL-producing isolates were identified based on phenotypic testing (twenty-nine from dogs, one from a cat); twenty-six were Escherichia coli and the remainder were Klebsiella spp. Bacterial cystitis was the most commonly identified (8/30, 27%) clinical problem associated with infection. Resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes was identified in 90% (27/30) of isolates, and all isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Over 70% of isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, and cefoxitin. BlaCTX-M-15 was the most common ESBL gene identified, present in 13/22 (59%) isolate genomes. A wide range of clinical infections were identified. Piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin may be alternatives to carbapenem therapy. Further, larger-scale studies are needed.

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