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Automated ligand fitting by core‐fragment fitting and extension into density


A procedure for fitting of ligands to electron-density maps by first fitting a core fragment of the ligand to density and then extending the remainder of the ligand into density is presented. The approach was tested by fitting 9327 ligands over a wide range of resolutions (most are in the range 0.8-4.8 A) from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) into (Fo - Fc)exp(i phi(c)) difference density calculated using entries from the PDB without these ligands. The procedure was able to place 58% of these 9327 ligands within 2 A (r.m.s.d.) of the coordinates of the atoms in the original PDB entry for that ligand. The success of the fitting procedure was relatively insensitive to the size of the ligand in the range 10-100 non-H atoms and was only moderately sensitive to resolution, with the percentage of ligands placed near the coordinates of the original PDB entry for fits in the range 58-73% over all resolution ranges tested.

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