Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Development of Whole‐Building Energy Models for Detailed Energy Insights of a Large Office Building with Green Certification Rating in Singapore


Detailed insights on energy use are missing for the building stock in Singapore that may aid reduction of energy consumption through a targeted approach. Therefore, we created two whole‐building energy models for a large commercial office building in the tropics representing a fully glazed and a concrete façade. We used Singapore's current building codes, which include compliance with local green‐rating system, and collaboration between two entities with first‐hand experience with design, construction, and operation of buildings in the tropics to define the models. The models provide a first step towards a set of standardized inputs and assumptions for office buildings in the tropics. The results show an energy use intensity of 146 kWh m−2 a−1. The three highest energy consumers are air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (43 %), lighting (29 %), and plug loads (21 %) whereas the two main sources of cooling loads are ventilation (29 %) and conduction and radiation through windows (20 %). Finally, we evaluated the effects of exterior shading on the fully glazed energy model to demonstrate the use of the models to building stakeholders.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View