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A general strategy for C(sp3)–H functionalization with nucleophiles using methyl radical as a hydrogen atom abstractor


Photoredox catalysis has provided many approaches to C(sp3)-H functionalization that enable selective oxidation and C(sp3)-C bond formation via the intermediacy of a carbon-centered radical. While highly enabling, functionalization of the carbon-centered radical is largely mediated by electrophilic reagents. Notably, nucleophilic reagents represent an abundant and practical reagent class, motivating the interest in developing a general C(sp3)-H functionalization strategy with nucleophiles. Here we describe a strategy that transforms C(sp3)-H bonds into carbocations via sequential hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and oxidative radical-polar crossover. The resulting carbocation is functionalized by a variety of nucleophiles-including halides, water, alcohols, thiols, an electron-rich arene, and an azide-to effect diverse bond formations. Mechanistic studies indicate that HAT is mediated by methyl radical-a previously unexplored HAT agent with differing polarity to many of those used in photoredox catalysis-enabling new site-selectivity for late-stage C(sp3)-H functionalization.

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