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Non-Invasive Sweat-Based Tracking of L-Dopa Pharmacokinetic Profiles Following an Oral Tablet Administration.

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Levodopa (L-Dopa) is the "gold-standard" medication for symptomatic therapy of Parkinson disease (PD). However, L-Dopa long-term use is associated with the development of motor and non-motor complications, primarily due to its fluctuating plasma levels in combination with the disease progression. Herein, we present the first example of individualized therapeutic drug monitoring for subjects upon intake of standard L-Dopa oral pill, centered on dynamic tracking of the drug concentration in naturally secreted fingertip sweat. The touch-based non-invasive detection method relies on instantaneous collection of fingertip sweat on a highly permeable hydrogel that transports the sweat to a biocatalytic tyrosinase-modified electrode, where sweat L-Dopa is measured by reduction of the dopaquinone enzymatic product. Personalized dose-response relationship is demonstrated within a group of human subjects, along with close pharmacokinetic correlation between the finger touch-based fingertip sweat and capillary blood samples.

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