Ramatroban as a Novel Immunotherapy for COVID-19.
- Author(s): Gupta, Ajay
- Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
- Reddy, Srinivasa T
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.37421/jmgm.2020.14.457
SARS-CoV-2 virus suppresses host innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby allowing the virus to proliferate, and cause multiorgan failure, especially in the elderly. Respiratory viruses stimulate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) to generate prostanoids including Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and thromboxane A2. Furthermore, PGD2 concentrations in the airways increase with aging. PGD2 action mediated via DP2 receptors suppresses both innate and adaptive immune responses, by inhibiting interferon-λ and stimulation of myeloid monocyte-derived suppressor cells respectively. PGD2 and thromboxane A2 actions via the TP receptors activate platelets leading to a prothrombotic state. Ramatroban, a small-molecule antagonist of DP2 and TP receptors, reverses viremia-associated proinflammatory, immunosuppressive5 and prothrombotic processes which are similar to those induced by SARS-Cov-2. Ramatroban, used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in Japan for the past 20 years has an excellent safety profile. Therefore, Ramatroban merits investigation as a novel immunotherapy for the treatment of COVID-19 disease.