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Manifestations and Near-Equivalents of Moving Image Works: a Research Project.


The frequency of occurrence of moving image versions (i.e., expressions), here called manifestations, the types of differences that can occur from one moving image manifestation (i.e., expression) to another, and the kinds of visible indicators, accessible to catalogers, that are associated with these differences were measured. It was found that continuity, i.e., intellectual and artistic content, varies frequently, 39% of the time; an additional 7% of works had added subsidiary matter, and an additional 12% of works have differences in language and sound track. In other words, a total of 58% of the works sampled had at least one instance of difference in intellectual and artistic content between two items. Only 8% of the works in the sample were mentioned as having manifestations (i.e., expressions) in standard reference sources such as Maltin. Visible indicators and physical format of films are very unreliable indicators of actual difference in intellectual and artistic content; 48% of the time, visible indicators vary with no underlying difference in continuity; 23% of the time, continuity varies with no difference in visible indicators. Length differences of three minutes or more are the most reliable indicators of actual difference in intellectual and artistic content. Of the titles with difference in continuity, 72% of these manifestations (i.e., expressions) were detectable by means of length difference. This corresponds to previous findings for books, which indicate paging is the most reliable indicator of true differences in manifestation (i.e., expression).

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