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Quantum Gravity in 2 + 1 Dimensions: The Case of a Closed Universe.

  • Author(s): Carlip, Steven
  • et al.

In three spacetime dimensions, general relativity drastically simplifies, becoming a topological theory with no propagating local degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, many of the difficult conceptual problems of quantizing gravity are still present. In this review, I summarize the rather large body of work that has gone towards quantizing (2 + 1)-dimensional vacuum gravity in the setting of a spatially closed universe.

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