Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: Does symptom structure resemble PTSD?
- Author(s): Suvak, M
- Maguen, S
- Litz, BT
- Silver, RC
- Holman, EA
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20289
The authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses of reports of posttraumatic stress reactions using a national probability sample of individuals indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (n = 675). Reactions at three time points in the year after the attacks were best accounted for by a lower-order, 4-factor solution (Reexperiencing, Strategic Avoidance, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal Symptoms). Indirect exposure to a traumatic event appears to induce a response with a similar symptom structure as responses to direct exposure. © 2008 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
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