Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: does symptom structure resemble PTSD?
- Author(s): Suvak, Michael
- Maguen, Shira
- Litz, Brett T
- Silver, Roxane Cohen
- Holman, E Alison
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20289
The authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses of reports of posttraumatic stress reactions using a national probability sample of individuals indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (n = 675). Reactions at three time points in the year after the attacks were best accounted for by a lower-order, 4-factor solution (Reexperiencing, Strategic Avoidance, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal Symptoms). Indirect exposure to a traumatic event appears to induce a response with a similar symptom structure as responses to direct exposure.