Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: Does symptom structure resemble PTSD?

  • Author(s): Suvak, M
  • Maguen, S
  • Litz, BT
  • Silver, RC
  • Holman, EA
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20289Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License
Abstract

The authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses of reports of posttraumatic stress reactions using a national probability sample of individuals indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (n = 675). Reactions at three time points in the year after the attacks were best accounted for by a lower-order, 4-factor solution (Reexperiencing, Strategic Avoidance, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal Symptoms). Indirect exposure to a traumatic event appears to induce a response with a similar symptom structure as responses to direct exposure. © 2008 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC Academic Senate's Open Access Policy. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View