Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Fuel Cells
Hydrogen is a likely energy carrier of the future due to the absence of carbon, low emissions when converted in various end-use technologies, and ability to be cleanly and efficiently produced from various domestic primary energy sources. In 2003 the Federal government launched theHydrogen Fuel Initiative with a total budget of $1.2 billion over 5 years in order to accelerate research and development of fuel cell technologies . Importantly, major automobile manufacturers are operating fuel cell vehicles that run on pure hydrogen gas, and several fuel cell buses are in operation in major cities around the world. Companies such as Shell, Air Products and Chemicals, Chevron, and Air Liquide are developing hydrogen production, distribution, and dispensing technologies for hydrogen vehicles along with strategies to deploy them. Moreover, the state of California intends to reduce the carbon content of transportation fuels through the Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Additional legislation in the areas of energy and climate, such as that contained in California laws entitled AB32, AB1493, SB76, and SB1368, highlight California’s commitment to ensuring low greenhouse gas emissions for both electricity and transportation fuels . Many other places around the world, including Germany and fellow European Union countries, Japan, China, and Korea, are advancing hydrogen fueling and vehicle technology. Therefore, developing a highly efficient, low-emission, and economically viable hydrogen production and delivery methodology is of great importance from environmental, social, economic, and political perspectives.