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C-reactive Protein in Nipple Aspirate Fluid Associated With Gail Model Factors



The majority of breast cancers originate in the epithelial lining of the breast ductal system. Premalignant cell damage in this lining may produce biochemical signals that deliver inflammatory proteins to the site. The presence of C-reactive protein (CRP) in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) may reflect an inflammatory state indicative of a premalignant breast microenvironment. This study ascertained CRP's presence in NAF and evaluated if risk factors, as identified by the Gail model, were associated with NAF CRP levels among healthy women.


NAF CRP levels were assayed in 59 women.


CRP was present in NAF and significantly (p = .04) and positively related to breast cancer risk as predicted by the Gail model.


CRP is differentially present in NAF and varies by Gail model risk factors. CRP in NAF holds promise as a noninvasive biomarker that detects a precarcinogenic breast ductal microenvironment and may contribute to the diagnosis of breast cancer early in the course of the disease when prognosis is most favorable.

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