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Levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 are elevated in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of haematological patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

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Aspergillus spp. have been shown to induce T-helper cell (Th) 1 and Th17 subsets resulting in elevated levels of several cytokines. The objective of this study was to analyse a bundle of cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with and without invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). This nested case-control analysis included 10 patients with probable/proven IPA and 20 matched controls without evidence of IPA, out of a pool of prospectively enrolled (2014-2017) adult cases with underlying haematological malignancies and suspected pulmonary infection. Serum samples were collected within 24 hours of BALF sampling. All samples were stored at -70°C for retrospective determination of cytokines. IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly associated with IPA in both serum (P = .011 and P = .028) and BALF (P = .006 and P = .012, respectively), and a trend was observed for serum IL-10 (P = .059). In multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, IL-10 remained a significant predictor of IPA in serum and IL-8 among BALF cytokines. In conclusion, levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly associated with probable/proven IPA, and a similar trend was observed for serum IL-10. Future cohort studies should determine the diagnostic potential of these cytokines for IPA, and evaluate combinations with other IPA biomarkers/diagnostic tests.

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