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Interface Engineering and Morphology Study of Thin Film Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Optoelectronic Devices

  • Author(s): Meng, Lei
  • Advisor(s): Yang, Yang
  • et al.
Abstract

Solar energy harvesting through photovoltaic conversion has gained great attention as a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution to meet the rapidly increasing global energy demand. Currently, the high cost of solar-cell technology limits its widespread use. This situation has generated considerable interest in developing alternative solar-cell technologies that reduce cost through the use of less expensive materials and processes. Perovskite solar cells provide a promising low-cost technology for harnessing this energy source.

In Chapter two, a moisture-assist method is introduced and studied to facilitate grain growth of solution processed perovskite films. As an approach to achieve high-quality perovskite films, I anneal the precursor film in a humid environment (ambient air) to dramatically increase grain size, carrier mobility, and charge carrier lifetime, thus improving electrical and optical properties and enhancing photovoltaic performance. It is revealed that mild moisture has a positive effect on perovskite film formation, demonstrating perovskite solar cells with 17.1% power conversion efficiency. Later on, in Chapter four, an ultrathin flexible device delivering a PCE of 14.0% is introduced. The device is based on silver-mesh substrates exhibiting superior durability against mechanical bending.

Due to their low energy of formation, organic lead iodide perovskites are also susceptible to degradation in moisture and air. The charge transport layer therefore plays a key role in protecting the perovskite photoactive layer from exposure to such environments, thus achieving highly stable perovskite-based photovoltaic cells. Although incorporating organic charge transport layers can provide high efficiencies and reduced hysteresis, concerns remain regarding device stability and the cost of fabrication. In this work, perovskite solar cells that have all solution-processed metal oxide charge transport layers were demonstrated. Stability has been significantly improved compared with cells made with organic layers. Degradation mechanisms were investigated and important guidelines were derived for future device design with a view to achieving both highly efficient and stable solar devices.

Organometal halide based perovskite material has great optoelectronic proprieties, for example, shallow traps, benign grain boundaries and high diffusion length. The perovskite LEDs show pure electroluminescence (EL) with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM), which is an advantage for display, lighting or lasing applications. In chapter five, perovskite LEDs are demonstrated employing solution processed charge injection layers with a quantum efficiency of 1.16% with a very low driving voltage.

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