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LRP1 Has a Predominant Role in Production over Clearance of Aβ in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Author(s): Van Gool, Bart
  • Storck, Steffen E
  • Reekmans, Sara M
  • Lechat, Benoit
  • Gordts, Philip LSM
  • Pradier, Laurent
  • Pietrzik, Claus U
  • Roebroek, Anton JM
  • et al.
Abstract

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) has a dual role in the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In cellular models, LRP1 enhances amyloid-β (Aβ) generation via APP internalization and thus its amyloidogenic processing. However, conditional knock-out studies in mice define LRP1 as an important mediator for the clearance of extracellular Aβ from brain via cellular degradation or transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In order to analyze the net effect of LRP1 on production and clearance of Aβ in vivo, we crossed mice with impaired LRP1 function with a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of Aβ metabolism showed that, despite reduced Aβ clearance due to LRP1 inactivation in vivo, less Aβ was found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Further analysis of APP metabolism revealed that impairment of LRP1 in vivo shifted APP processing from the Aβ-generating amyloidogenic cleavage by beta-secretase to the non-amyloidogenic processing by alpha-secretase as shown by a decrease in extracellular Aβ and an increase of soluble APP-α (sAPP-α). This shift in APP processing resulted in overall lower Aβ levels and a reduction in plaque burden. Here, we present for the first time clear in vivo evidence that global impairment of LRP1's endocytosis function favors non-amyloidogenic processing of APP due to its reduced internalization and subsequently, reduced amyloidogenic processing. By inactivation of LRP1, the inhibitory effect on Aβ generation overrules the simultaneous impaired Aβ clearance, resulting in less extracellular Aβ and reduced plaque deposition in a mouse model of AD.

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