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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Multifunctional light beam source for surface slope measuring long trace profilers


To fully exploit the advantages of fourth-generation synchrotron light sources, diffraction-limited-storage-rings (DLSR) and fully coherent free electron lasers (FELs), beamline mirrors and diffraction grating must be of exceptional quality. To achieve the required mirror and grating quality, the metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize these challenging optics and, even more so, optical assemblies must also offer exceptional functionality and performance. One of the most widely used slope measuring instruments for characterizing x-ray optics is the long trace profiler (LTP). The easily reconfigurable mechanical design of the LTP allows optimization of the profiler arrangement to the specifics of a particular metrology task. Here, we discuss the optical schematic, design, and performance of an original multifunctional light beam source that provides functional flexibility of the LTP optical sensor. With this source, the LTP can be easily reconfigured for measurements of x-ray mirrors or diffraction gratings that have widely different source coherence requirements. Usage of a source with a low degree of coherence for mirror metrology helps to suppress the LTP systematic errors due to spurious interference effects in the LTP optical elements. A high-coherence narrow-band source is used for groove-density-distribution characterization of x-ray diffraction gratings. The systematic error and spatial resolution of the LTP with the different sources is also measured and analyzed.

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