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NKD2 mediates stimulation-dependent ORAI1 trafficking to augment Ca2+ entry in T cells.


Sustained activation of the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel is pivotal for effector T cell responses. The mechanisms underlying this sustainability remain poorly understood. We find that plasma membrane localization of ORAI1, the pore subunit of CRAC channels, is limited in effector T cells, with a significant fraction trapped in intracellular vesicles. From a targeted screen, we identify an essential component of ORAI1+ vesicles, naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2). Mechanistically, NKD2, an adaptor molecule activated by signaling pathways downstream of T cell receptors, orchestrates trafficking and insertion of ORAI1+ vesicles to the plasma membrane. Together, our findings suggest that T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulation-dependent insertion of ORAI1 into the plasma membrane is essential for sustained Ca2+ signaling and cytokine production in T cells.

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