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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Summary of the Nonmonetary Externalities of Motor-Vehicle Use


Personal non-monetary costs are those unpriced costs of motor-vehicle use that a person imposes on herself as a result of her decision to travel. The largest personal costs of motor-vehicle use are personal travel time in uncongested conditions and the risk of getting into an accident that revolves nobody else or would have happened regardless of the actions of others.

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