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Effect of Urethroplasty on Anxiety and Depression.



To our knowledge anxiety and depression in patients with urethral stricture disease and the impact of urethroplasty on mental health has never been explored. We hypothesized that patients with urethral stricture disease would have higher than normal anxiety and depression levels, and urethroplasty would improve mental health.

Materials and methods

We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients in a multi-institutional reconstructive urology database who underwent anterior urethroplasty. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of anxiety and depression, and overall health was recorded using the validated EQ-5D™-3L Questionnaire. Sexual function was evaluated with the IIEF (International Index of Erectile Function) and the Men's Sexual Health Questionnaire. Stricture recurrence was defined as the need for a subsequent procedure.


Median followup in the 298 patients who met study inclusion criteria was 4.2 months. Preoperative anxiety and depression was reported by 86 patients (29%). Those with anxiety and depression reported higher rates of marijuana use, a worse preoperative IIEF score (17.5 vs 19.6, p = 0.01) and a lower image of overall health (66 vs 79, p ≤0.001). Improvement or resolution of anxiety and depression was experienced by 56% of patients treated with urethroplasty while de novo postoperative anxiety and depression were reported by 10%. These men reported a decreased flow rate (16 vs 25 ml per second, p = 0.01). Clinical failure in 8 patients (2.7%) had no effect on the development, improvement or resolution of anxiety and depression.


Of patients with preoperative anxiety and depression 56% reported improvement or resolution after urethroplasty. Although new onset anxiety and depression was rare, these patients had a significantly lower postoperative maximum flow rate, possibly representing a group with a perceived suboptimal surgical outcome. A urethral stricture disease specific questionnaire is needed to further elucidate the interplay of urethral stricture disease with anxiety and depression.

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