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Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 5: MRI Predictors of Microvascular Invasion and Recurrence After Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

  • Author(s): Chen, Jingbiao
  • Zhou, Jing
  • Kuang, Sichi
  • Zhang, Yao
  • Xie, Sidong
  • He, Bingjun
  • Deng, Ying
  • Yang, Hao
  • Shan, Qungang
  • Wu, Jun
  • Sirlin, Claude B
  • Wang, Jin
  • et al.

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OBJECTIVE. We investigated in Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 (LR-5) observations whether imaging features, including LI-RADS imaging features, could predict microvascular invasion (MVI) and posthepatectomy recurrence in high-risk adult patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively identified 149 high-risk patients who underwent 3-T MRI within 1 month before hepatectomy for HCC; 81 of 149 patients with no HCC recurrence were followed for more than 1 year. Tumors with clear surgical margins were confirmed in each hepatectomy specimen. MVI was evaluated histologically by a histopathologist. Tumor recurrence was determined by clinical and imaging follow-up. Two independent radiologists reviewed the prehepatectomy MR images and assessed LI-RADS v2018 imaging features as well as some non-LI-RADS features in all LR-5 observations in consensus. Alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor number, and imaging features were analyzed as potential predictors for MVI and posthepatectomy recurrence using multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS. One hundred forty-nine patients with pathologically confirmed HCC were included; 64 of 149 (43.0%) patients had MVI, whereas 48 of 129 (37.2%) patients had tumor recurrence within 3 years after hepatectomy. Mosaic architecture (odds ratio, 3.420; p < 0.001) and nonsmooth tumor margin (odds ratio, 2.554; p = 0.011) were independent predictors of MVI. Multifocal tumors (hazard ratio, 2.101; p = 0.034), absence of fat in mass (hazard ratio, 2.109; p = 0.015), and nonsmooth tumor margin (hazard ratio, 2.415; p = 0.005) were independent predictors of posthepatectomy recurrence. CONCLUSION. In high-risk patients with LR-5 HCC, mosaic architecture and non-smooth tumor margin independently predicted MVI. Multifocal tumors, absence of fat in mass, and nonsmooth tumor margin independently predicted recurrence.

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