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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Recent Work

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been a leader in science and engineering research for more than 70 years. Located on a 200 acre site in the hills above the Berkeley campus of the University of California, overlooking the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratory managed by the University of California. It has an annual budget of nearly $480 million (FY2002) and employs a staff of about 4,300, including more than a thousand students.

Berkeley Lab conducts unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines with key efforts in fundamental studies of the universe; quantitative biology; nanoscience; new energy systems and environmental solutions; and the use of integrated computing as a tool for discovery. It is organized into 17 scientific divisions and hosts four DOE national user facilities. Details on Berkeley Lab's divisions and user facilities can be viewed here.

Cover page of Genotype to ecotype in niche environments: adaptation of Arthrobacter to carbon availability and environmental conditions

Genotype to ecotype in niche environments: adaptation of Arthrobacter to carbon availability and environmental conditions


AbstractNiche environmental conditions influence both the structure and function of microbial communities and the cellular function of individual strains. The terrestrial subsurface is a dynamic and diverse environment that exhibits specific biogeochemical conditions associated with depth, resulting in distinct environmental niches. Here, we present the characterization of seven distinct strains belonging to the genus Arthrobacter isolated from varying depths of a single sediment core and associated groundwater from an adjacent well. We characterized genotype and phenotype of each isolate to connect specific cellular functions and metabolisms to ecotype. Arthrobacter isolates from each ecotype demonstrated functional and genomic capacities specific to their biogeochemical conditions of origin, including laboratory-demonstrated characterization of salinity tolerance and optimal pH, and genes for utilization of carbohydrates and other carbon substrates. Analysis of the Arthrobacter pangenome revealed that it is notably open with a volatile accessory genome compared to previous pangenome studies on other genera, suggesting a high potential for adaptability to environmental niches.

Cover page of Constant-depth circuits for dynamic simulations of materials on quantum computers

Constant-depth circuits for dynamic simulations of materials on quantum computers


AbstractDynamic simulation of materials is a promising application for near-term quantum computers. Current algorithms for Hamiltonian simulation, however, produce circuits that grow in depth with increasing simulation time, limiting feasible simulations to short-time dynamics. Here, we present a method for generating circuits that are constant in depth with increasing simulation time for a specific subset of one-dimensional (1D) materials Hamiltonians, thereby enabling simulations out to arbitrarily long times. Furthermore, by removing the effective limit on the number of feasibly simulatable time-steps, the constant-depth circuits enable Trotter error to be made negligibly small by allowing simulations to be broken into arbitrarily many time-steps. For an N-spin system, the constant-depth circuit contains only $\mathcal {O}(N^{2})$ O ( N 2 ) CNOT gates. Such compact circuits enable us to successfully execute long-time dynamic simulation of ubiquitous models, such as the transverse field Ising and XY models, on current quantum hardware for systems of up to 5 qubits without the need for complex error mitigation techniques. Aside from enabling long-time dynamic simulations with minimal Trotter error for a specific subset of 1D Hamiltonians, our constant-depth circuits can advance materials simulations on quantum computers more broadly in a number of indirect ways.

Cover page of Correlation-driven electronic reconstruction in FeTe1−xSex

Correlation-driven electronic reconstruction in FeTe1−xSex


Electronic correlation is of fundamental importance to high temperature superconductivity. While the low energy electronic states in cuprates are dominantly affected by correlation effects across the phase diagram, observation of correlation-driven changes in fermiology amongst the iron-based superconductors remains rare. Here we present experimental evidence for a correlation-driven reconstruction of the Fermi surface tuned independently by two orthogonal axes of temperature and Se/Te ratio in the iron chalcogenide family FeTe1−xSex. We demonstrate that this reconstruction is driven by the de-hybridization of a strongly renormalized dxy orbital with the remaining itinerant iron 3d orbitals in the emergence of an orbital-selective Mott phase. Our observations are further supported by our theoretical calculations to be salient spectroscopic signatures of such a non-thermal evolution from a strongly correlated metallic phase into an orbital-selective Mott phase in dxy as Se concentration is reduced.

Cover page of Imaging atomic-scale chemistry from fused multi-modal electron microscopy

Imaging atomic-scale chemistry from fused multi-modal electron microscopy


Efforts to map atomic-scale chemistry at low doses with minimal noise using electron microscopes are fundamentally limited by inelastic interactions. Here, fused multi-modal electron microscopy offers high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) recovery of material chemistry at nano- and atomic-resolution by coupling correlated information encoded within both elastic scattering (high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF)) and inelastic spectroscopic signals (electron energy loss (EELS) or energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX)). By linking these simultaneously acquired signals, or modalities, the chemical distribution within nanomaterials can be imaged at significantly lower doses with existing detector hardware. In many cases, the dose requirements can be reduced by over one order of magnitude. This high SNR recovery of chemistry is tested against simulated and experimental atomic resolution data of heterogeneous nanomaterials.

Cover page of Correlation-driven electron-hole asymmetry in graphene field effect devices

Correlation-driven electron-hole asymmetry in graphene field effect devices


Electron-hole asymmetry is a fundamental property in solids that can determine the nature of quantum phase transitions and the regime of operation for devices. The observation of electron-hole asymmetry in graphene and recently in twisted graphene and moiré heterostructures has spurred interest into whether it stems from single-particle effects or from correlations, which are core to the emergence of intriguing phases in moiré systems. Here, we report an effective way to access electron-hole asymmetry in 2D materials by directly measuring the quasiparticle self-energy in graphene/Boron Nitride field-effect devices. As the chemical potential moves from the hole to the electron-doped side, we see an increased strength of electronic correlations manifested by an increase in the band velocity and inverse quasiparticle lifetime. These results suggest that electronic correlations intrinsically drive the electron-hole asymmetry in graphene and by leveraging this asymmetry can provide alternative avenues to generate exotic phases in twisted moiré heterostructures.

Cover page of Enhanced valley splitting of WSe2 in twisted van der Waals WSe2/CrI3 heterostructures

Enhanced valley splitting of WSe2 in twisted van der Waals WSe2/CrI3 heterostructures


Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of different two-dimensional (2D) materials offer an easily accessible way to combine properties of individual materials for applications. Owing to the discovery of a set of unanticipated physical phenomena, the twisted 2D vdW heterostructures have gained considerable attention recently. Here, we report enhanced valley splitting in twisted 2D vdW WSe2/CrI3 heterostructures. In particular, the splitting can be 1200% (or 5.18 meV) of the value for a non-twisted heterostructure. According to the k·p model, this value is equivalent to a ~20 T external magnetic field applied perpendicular to the 2D sheet. The thermodynamic stability of 2D vdW WSe2/CrI3 heterostructures, on the other hand, depends linearly on the interlayer twisting angle.

Cover page of Recent advances and applications of deep learning methods in materials science

Recent advances and applications of deep learning methods in materials science


Deep learning (DL) is one of the fastest-growing topics in materials data science, with rapidly emerging applications spanning atomistic, image-based, spectral, and textual data modalities. DL allows analysis of unstructured data and automated identification of features. The recent development of large materials databases has fueled the application of DL methods in atomistic prediction in particular. In contrast, advances in image and spectral data have largely leveraged synthetic data enabled by high-quality forward models as well as by generative unsupervised DL methods. In this article, we present a high-level overview of deep learning methods followed by a detailed discussion of recent developments of deep learning in atomistic simulation, materials imaging, spectral analysis, and natural language processing. For each modality we discuss applications involving both theoretical and experimental data, typical modeling approaches with their strengths and limitations, and relevant publicly available software and datasets. We conclude the review with a discussion of recent cross-cutting work related to uncertainty quantification in this field and a brief perspective on limitations, challenges, and potential growth areas for DL methods in materials science.

Cover page of Field Quality of the 4.5-m-Long MQXFA Pre-Series Magnets for the HL-LHC Upgrade as Observed During Magnet Assembly

Field Quality of the 4.5-m-Long MQXFA Pre-Series Magnets for the HL-LHC Upgrade as Observed During Magnet Assembly


The U.S. High-Luminosity LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project (HL-LHC AUP) is developing MQXFA magnets, a series of 4.5 m long 150 mm aperture high-field Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the HL-LHC upgrade at CERN. Five pre-series magnets, MQXFA03 through MQXFA07, have been developed. During the magnet assembly stage, we perform magnetic measurements on the coil-pack sub-assembly and magnets after loading to track the field quality for two purposes. First, it serves as a quality assurance tool to check if the magnet field quality is on track to meet the acceptance criteria. Magnetic measurements are used to understand if magnetic shims are needed to compensate low-order field errors and to meet the field quality targets. Second, the measurements during the assembly stage can also help understand the field quality, especially the geometric field errors, for Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerator magnets. Here we summarize the measurement results of the pre-series MQXFA magnets, including the magnetic axis and twist angle. The results will provide useful feedback for the series production of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets and on the optimization of field quality of accelerator magnets based on the wind-and-react Nb$_{3}$Sn technology.

Cover page of Shell-Based Support Structure for the 45 GHz ECR Ion Source MARS-D

Shell-Based Support Structure for the 45 GHz ECR Ion Source MARS-D


Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) using NbTi coils and optimized for 28 GHz resonant heating have been successfully operated for almost two decades. Moving to higher heating frequencies requires increased magnetic fields, but traditional racetrack-and-solenoid ECRIS structures are at their limit using NbTi. Rather than moving to a superconductor untested in this field, the Mixed Axial and Radial field System (MARS) being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory employs a novel closed-loop-coil design that more efficiently utilizes conductor fields and will allow the use of NbTi in a next-generation, 45 GHz ECRIS. This article presents the design of the shell-based support structure central to the MARS-D magnet design, as well as structural analysis of its components and optimization of pre-load parameters that will guarantee its successful operation.