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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Williams Institute advances sexual orientation law and public policy through rigorous, independent research and scholarship, and disseminates it to judges, legislators, policymakers, media and the public. A national think tank at UCLA Law, the Williams Institute produces high quality research with real-world relevance.

Experts at the Williams Institute have authored dozens of public policy studies and law review articles, filed amicus briefs in key court cases, provided expert testimony at legislative hearings, been widely cited in the national media, and trained thousands of lawyers, judges and members of the public. By providing new ideas and reliable information, the Williams Institute makes a difference.

Cover page of LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

(2013)

An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland.

The report finds overall higher unemployment rates (15 percent v. 12 percent) and lower proportions with a college degree (23 percent v. 26 percent) among LGBT African-Americans, when compared to their non-LGBT counterparts. However, these disadvantages are not present among African-Americans in same-sex couples. Twenty-five percent of African-Americans in same-sex couples have completed a college degree, compared to 22 percent of African-Americans in different-sex couples. In addition, 71 percent of African-Americans in same-sex couples are employed compared to 68 percent of their counterparts in different-sex couples. LGBT African-Americans are also less likely than their non-LGBT counterparts to have health insurance.

African-American same-sex couples raising children, report household median incomes $15,000 lower than comparable African-American different-sex couples ($47,300 vs. $63,020). Female African-American same-sex couples, which comprise 58 percent of all African-American same-sex couples, earn over $20,000 less than male African-American same-sex couples. LGBT African-American females and African-American females in same-sex couples are three times more likely to report military service than their non-LGBT counterparts.

Cover page of LGBT Latino/a Individuals and Latino/a Same-Sex Couples

LGBT Latino/a Individuals and Latino/a Same-Sex Couples

(2013)

An estimated 1.4 million or 4.3 percent of Latino/a adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 29 percent of Latino/a same-sex couples are raising children. The estimated 146,100 Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of Latinos/as. A third of Latino/a same-sex couples live in New Mexico, California, and Texas.

Nationally, Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples are faring better than Latinos/as in different-sex couples. Twenty-six percent of all Latinos/as in same-sex couples have completed a college degree or more, compared to 14 percent of Latinos/as in different-sex couples. But the data evidence that there are subgroups within the Latino/a LGBT community that are more socioeconomically vulnerable. Reported median household incomes for Latino/a same-sex couples raising children are 20% below the incomes of same-sex Latino/a couples without children. Latina/female same-sex couples also make close to $15,000 less than Latino/male same-sex couples and have lower rates of college completion. Rates of education also vary depending on individual ancestry. Individuals of Spanish or Cuban ancestry report higher levels of educational attainment, while Mexican, Salvadoran, and Puerto Rican individuals report lower rates of college completion.

Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples are also more likely to be born in the U.S. than Latino/a individuals in different sex couples (59% versus 37%) and more likely to be a U.S. citizen than their counterparts in different-sex couples (80% versus 62%). However, one in seven Latino/a same-sex couples are binational (include one citizen and one non-citizen). The top three countries of origin reported for Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples born outside the U.S. are Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba.

Cover page of LGBT Asian and Pacific Islander Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

LGBT Asian and Pacific Islander Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

(2013)

An estimated 325,000 or 2.8% of all Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adults in the United States identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Nationally, API LGBT individuals have lower rates of employment and academic achievement than their non-LGBT counterparts. Nearly 33,000 API LGBT individuals are in same-sex couples, a third of which live in California, Hawaii and New York.

Overall, the 33,000 API individuals in same-sex couples are doing better. However, detailed data analysis reveals vulnerable LGBT subgroups including Pacific Islanders and Native Hawaiians, female same-sex couples, couples where both partners are API and couples with children. These groups tend to experience lower rates of health insurance coverage, lower academic achievement, higher rates of noncitizenship status, and higher rates of unemployment than other API couples.

API individuals in same-sex couples are more likely to be born in the U.S. than API individuals in different sex couples (35% versus 13%). The top three countries of origin reported for API individuals in same-sex couples born outside the U.S. are the Philippines, Vietnam and Taiwan. API individuals in same-sex couples are more likely to be a U.S. citizen than their counterparts in different-sex couples (81% versus 68%). One in five API same-sex couples are binational (include one citizen and one non-citizen).

Cover page of Wyoming Census Snapshot: 2010

Wyoming Census Snapshot: 2010

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

Cover page of South Dakota Census Snapshot: 2010

South Dakota Census Snapshot: 2010

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

Cover page of District of Columbia Census Snapshot: 2010

District of Columbia Census Snapshot: 2010

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

Cover page of Delaware Census Snapshot 2010

Delaware Census Snapshot 2010

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

Cover page of Oklahoma Census Snapshot: 2010

Oklahoma Census Snapshot: 2010

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

Cover page of Virginia Census Snapshot

Virginia Census Snapshot

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

Cover page of Nevada Census Snapshot: 2010

Nevada Census Snapshot: 2010

(2011)

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.