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Cover page of Testing a Strategy to Identify Incidence of Nurse Suicide in the United States.

Testing a Strategy to Identify Incidence of Nurse Suicide in the United States.

(2018)

The aim of this study was to test a strategy for quantifying incidence of nurse suicide using San Diego County data as a pilot for national investigation.

Worldwide, 1 person dies by suicide every 40 seconds; more than 1 000 000 suicides occur yearly. Suicide rates for nurses in the United States have not been evaluated. This methodological article tested a strategy to identify incidence of nurse suicide compared with those of physicians and the general public.

Deidentified San Diego County Medical Examiner data from 2005 to 2015 were analyzed with a descriptive epidemiologic approach.

Overall RN (18.51) and physician (40.72) incidences of suicide per 100 000 person-years were higher than the San Diego general population, excluding nurses (15.81) normalized to 100 000 person-years.

Establishing incidence of nurse suicide is confounded by variation in reporting mechanisms plus incomplete availability of nurse gender data. Relatively small outcome numbers compared with the general population may underestimate results. Research using a larger sample is indicated. Nurse executives may decrease risk by proactively addressing workplace stressors.

Cover page of Validation of Caregiver-Centered Delirium Detection Tools: A Systematic Review

Validation of Caregiver-Centered Delirium Detection Tools: A Systematic Review

(2018)

Abstract

Objectives: To summarize the validity of caregiver‑centered delirium detection tools in hospitalized adults and assess associated patient and caregiver outcomes.

Design: Systematic review

Setting: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus from inception to May 15, 2017

Participants: Hospitalized adults

Intervention: Caregiver-centered delirium detection tools

Measurements: We drafted a protocol from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two reviewers independently completed abstract and full-text review, data extraction, and quality assessment. We summarized findings using descriptive statistics including mean, median, standard deviation, range, frequencies (percent), and Cohen's Kappa (κ). Included studies reported on the validity of caregiver-centered delirium detection tools or associated patient and caregiver outcomes, and were cohort or cross-sectional in design. 

Results: We reviewed 6056 titles and abstracts, included six articles, and identified six caregiver-centered tools. All tools were designed to be used in several minutes or less, and had 11 items or fewer. Three tools were caregiver-administered (completed independently by caregivers): Family Confusion Assessment Method (FAM-CAM), Informant Assessment of Geriatric Delirium (I-AGeD), and Sour Seven. Three tools were caregiver-informed (administered by a healthcare professional using caregiver input): Single Question in Delirium (SQiD), Single Screening Question Delirium (SSQ‑Delirium), and the Stressful Caregiving Response to Experiences of Dying (SCARED). Caregiveradministered tools had higher psychometric properties [FAM-CAM sensitivity 75% (95%, confidence interval CI, 35-95%), specificity 91% (95% CI, 74-97%); Sour Seven positive predictive value, PPV 89.5%, negative predictive value, NPV 90%] than caregiver-informed tools [SQID: sensitivity 80% (95% CI, 28.3-99.5%), specificity 71% (95% CI, 58.77-99.8%), SSQ-Delirium sensitivity 79.6%, specificity 56.1%].

Conclusions: Delirium detection is essential for appropriate delirium management. Caregiver‑centered delirium detection tools are promising to improve delirium detection and associated patient and caregiver outcomes. Comparative studies utilizing larger sample sizes and multiple centers are required to determine validity and reliability characteristics.

Key Words: delirium; caregiver; family; hospital; screening

  • 1 supplemental image
Cover page of Suicide Prevention: A Healer Education and Referral Program for Nurses.

Suicide Prevention: A Healer Education and Referral Program for Nurses.

(2018)

The aim of this study was to describe the pilot expansion of a proactive suicide risk-screening program, initially designed for physicians, to nurses.

The Healer Education, Assessment and Referral (HEAR) program detects at-risk physicians and facilitates referral to mental healthcare. Nothing similar has been available for at-risk nurses. Local nurse suicides served as the catalyst to extend the HEAR program to nurses.

Education, outreach, and an encrypted, online, anonymous, proactive risk screening were conducted to identify and refer nurses with depression and suicide risk.

During the 1st 6 months of the program, 172 of 2475 (7%) nurses completed questionnaires; 74 (43%) were rated as high risk, and another 98 (55%) as moderate risk; 12 (7%) reported current active thoughts or actions of self-harm, and 19 (11%) reported previous suicide attempts. Forty-four (26%) received in-person or verbal counseling, and 17 accepted referral for continued treatment.

An encrypted, anonymous, proactive risk screening is effective at identifying nurses at risk and referring them to mental healthcare.

Link to published final version: https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=29300216

  • 5 supplemental PDFs

Nurse Suicide: Breaking the Silence

(2018)

The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of and begin to build an open dialogue regarding nurse suicide. Recent exposure to nurse suicide raised our awareness and concern, but it was disarming to find no organization-specific, local, state, or national mechanisms in place to track and report the number or context of nurse suicides in the United States. This paper describes our initial ex-ploration as we attempted to uncover what is known about the prevalence of nurse suicide in the United States. Our goal is to break through the culture of silence regarding suicide among nurses so that realistic and accurate appraisals of risk can be established and preventive measures can be developed.

Improving partnerships with family members of ICU patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

(2018)

Background

Over the last decade, health care delivery has shifted to partnering with patients and their families to improve health and quality of care, and to lower costs. Partnering with family members (FMs) of critically ill patients who lack capacity is particularly important for improving experiences and outcomes for both patients and FMs. How best to apply such partnering strategies, however, is yet unknown. The IMPACT trial will evaluate two interventions that enable partnerships with families of critically ill patients, each in a distinct content area, but similar in that they empower and support FMs.

Methods

This multi-center, open-label, randomized, phase II clinical trial aims to randomize 150 older, long-stay ICU patients and their families into one of three groups (50 in each group): (1) The OPTimal nutrition by Informing and Capacitating FMs of best practices (OPTICs) group, a multi-faceted intervention to engage and empower FMs to advocate for, and audit, best nutritional practices for their critically ill FMs, (2) A web-based decision-support intervention called the ICU Workbook (The Canadian Researchers at the End of Life Network (CARENET) ICU Workbook; https://www.myicuguide.ca/. Accessed 3 Feb 2017.) to support families in shared decision-making process regarding goals of medical treatments, and (3) Usual care. The main outcomes for this trial include nutritional adequacy in hospital and hand-grip strength prior to hospital discharge; satisfaction with decision-making; decision conflict; and degree of shared decision-making.

Discussion

With the goal of improving the functional recovery of nutritionally high-risk older patients and the quality of care at the end of life for these patients and their FMs in the ICU, we have proposed two novel family capacitation strategies. We hope that the nutrition and decision-support interventions implemented and evaluated in our study will contribute to the evidentiary basis for best family partnered care pathways focused on optimizing the quality of ICU care for patients with life-threatening illness and their families.

Trial registration

Clinical trials.gov, ID: NCT02920086. Registered on 30 September 2016. Protocol version dated 11 October 2016.

Cover page of Suicide Prevention

Suicide Prevention

(2018)

Objective: To describe the pilot expansion of a proactive suicide risk-screening program, initially designed for physicians, to nurses.

Background: The Healer Education, Assessment and Referral (HEAR) program detects at-risk physicians and facilitates referral to mental health care. Nothing similar has been available for at-risk nurses. Local nurse suicides served as the catalyst to extend the HEAR program to nurses.

Method: Education, outreach and an encrypted, online, anonymous, proactive risk screening were conducted to identify and refer nurses with depression and suicide risk.

Results: During the first 6 months of the program, 172 (7%) of 2475 nurses completed questionnaires; 74 (43%) were rated as high risk and another 98 (55%) as moderate risk; 12 (7%) reported current active thoughts or actions of self-harm and 19 (11%) reported previous suicide attempts. Forty-four (26%) received in-person or verbal counseling and 17 accepted referral for continued treatment.

Conclusions: An encrypted, anonymous, proactive risk screening is effective at identifying nurses at risk and referring them to mental health care.

  • 1 supplemental PDF
Cover page of Guidelines for Family-Centered Care in the Neonatal, Pediatric, and Adult ICU

Guidelines for Family-Centered Care in the Neonatal, Pediatric, and Adult ICU

(2017)

Objective: To provide clinicians with evidence-based strategies to optimize support of the family of critically ill patients in the ICU.

Methods: We used the Council of Medical Specialty Societies principles for the development of clinical guidelines as the framework for guideline development. We assembled an international multidisciplinary team of 29 members with expertise in guideline development, evidence analysis and family-centered care to revise the 2007 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Support of the Family in the Patient-Centered Intensive Care Unit. We conducted a scoping review of qualitative research that explored family-centered care in the ICU. Thematic analyses were conducted to support Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) question development. Patients and families validated the importance of interventions and outcomes. We then conducted a systematic review using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) methodology to make recommendations for practice. Recommendations were subjected to electronic voting with pre-established voting thresholds. No industry funding was associated with guideline development.

Results: The scoping review yielded 683 qualitative studies; 228 were used for thematic analysis and PICO question development. The systematic review search yielded 4158 reports after de-duplication and 76 additional studies were added from alerts and hand searches; 238 studies met inclusion criteria. We made 23 recommendations from moderate, low and very low level of evidence on the topics of: communication with family members, family presence, family support, consultations and ICU team members, and operational and environmental issues. We provide recommendations for future research and work-tools to support translation of the recommendations into practice.

Conclusions: These guidelines identify the evidence base for best practices for family-centered care in the ICU. All recommendations were weak, highlighting the relative nascency of this field of research and the importance of future research to identify the most effective interventions to improve this important aspect of ICU care.

Cover page of Exploring Distress Caused by Blame for a Negative Patient Outcome

Exploring Distress Caused by Blame for a Negative Patient Outcome

(2016)

Purpose of this research was to explore the incidence, characteristics and consequences of blame-related distress and its relationship to moral distress. An instrument was created and validated and a conceptual model proposed for relating blame to similar constructs among clinical staff working in acute care.

  • 2 supplemental files
Cover page of Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004-2005.

Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004-2005.

(2007)

To develop clinical practice guidelines for the support of the patient and family in the adult, pediatric, or neonatal patient-centered ICU.

A multidisciplinary task force of experts in critical care practice was convened from the membership of the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) to include representation from adult, pediatric, and neonatal intensive care units.

The task force members reviewed the published literature. The Cochrane library, Cinahl, and MedLine were queried for articles published between 1980 and 2003. Studies were scored according to Cochrane methodology. Where evidence did not exist or was of a low level, consensus was derived from expert opinion.

The topic was divided into subheadings: decision making, family coping, staff stress related to family interactions, cultural support, spiritual/religious support, family visitation, family presence on rounds, family presence at resuscitation, family environment of care, and palliative care. Each section was led by one task force member. Each section draft was reviewed by the group and debated until consensus was achieved. The draft document was reviewed by a committee of the Board of Regents of the ACCM. After steering committee approval, the draft was approved by the SCCM Council and was again subjected to peer review by this journal.

More than 300 related studies were reviewed. However, the level of evidence in most cases is at Cochrane level 4 or 5, indicating the need for further research. Forty-three recommendations are presented that include, but are not limited to, endorsement of a shared decision-making model, early and repeated care conferencing to reduce family stress and improve consistency in communication, honoring culturally appropriate requests for truth-telling and informed refusal, spiritual support, staff education and debriefing to minimize the impact of family interactions on staff health, family presence at both rounds and resuscitation, open flexible visitation, way-finding and family-friendly signage, and family support before, during, and after a death.