© 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. In order to elucidate interactions between sulfate reduction and dechlorination, we systematically evaluated the effects of different concentrations of sulfate and sulfide on reductive dechlorination by isolates, constructed consortia, and enrichments containing Dehalococcoides sp. Sulfate (up to 5 mM) did not inhibit the growth or metabolism of pure cultures of the dechlorinator Dehalococcoides mccartyi 195, the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, or the syntroph Syntrophomonas wolfei. In contrast, sulfide at 5 mM exhibited inhibitory effects on growth of the sulfate reducer and the syntroph, as well as on both dechlorination and growth rates of D. mccartyi. Transcriptomic analysis of D. mccartyi 195 revealed that genes encoding ATP synthase, biosynthesis, and Hym hydrogenase were downregulated during sulfide inhibition, whereas genes encoding metal-containing enzymes involved in energy metabolism were upregulated even though the activity of those enzymes (hydrogenases) was inhibited. When the electron acceptor (trichloroethene) was limiting and an electron donor (lactate) was provided in excess to cocultures and enrichments, high sulfate concentrations (5 mM) inhibited reductive dechlorination due to the toxicity of generated sulfide. The initial cell ratio of sulfate reducers to D. mccartyi (1:3, 1:1, or 3:1) did not affect the dechlorination performance in the presence of sulfate (2 and 5 mM). In contrast, under electron donor limitation, dechlorination was not affected by sulfate amendments due to low sulfide production, demonstrating that D. mccartyi can function effectively in anaerobic microbial communities containing moderate sulfate concentrations (5 mM), likely due to its ability to outcompete other hydrogen-consuming bacteria and archaea.