Cerebral deposition of amyloid β protein (Aβ) is an invariant feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), and epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate consumption of foods enriched with phenolic compounds reduce the incidence of AD. We reported previously that the phenolic compounds myricetin (Myr) and rosmarinic acid (RA) inhibited Aβ aggregation in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate a mechanistic basis for these results, we analyzed the effects of five phenolic compounds in the Aβ aggregation process and in oligomer-induced synaptic toxicities.Wenow report that the phenolic compounds blocked Aβ oligomerization, and Myr promoted significantNMRchemical shift changes of monomeric Aβ. Both Myr and RA reduced cellular toxicity and synaptic dysfunction of the Aβ oligomers. These results suggest that Myr and RA may play key roles in blocking the toxicity and early assembly processes associated with Aβ through different binding. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.