Osteocalcin (OC) is produced by osteoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. In animal models, serum OC levels are strongly correlated with vascular calcium content, however, the association of OC with vascular calcification in humans is uncertain. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) enrolled community-living women, age ≥65 years. The present study included a subsample of 363 randomly selected SOF participants. Serum total OC was measured by ELISA, and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was evaluated on lateral lumbar radiographs. We examined the cross-sectional association between serum OC and AAC. The mean serum OC level was 24 ± 11 ng/ml and AAC was present in 188 subjects (52%). We observed no association of OC and AAC in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. For example, each standard deviation higher OC level was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for AAC prevalence (AAC score >0) near unity (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.82–1.36) in models adjusted for CVD risk factors. Further adjustment for intact parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and hip and spine bone mineral density did not materially change the results (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.86–1.75). Similarly, higher OC levels were not associated with severity of AAC (P
= 0.87). In conclusion, among community-living older women, serum OC is not associated with AAC. These findings suggest that serum OC levels may more closely reflect bone formation than vascular calcification in humans.