Luminance adjustment is widely used to evaluate discomfort due to glare. This paper reports an experiment conducted to investigate two factors of the luminance adjustment procedure, stimulus range bias and direct vs indirect control. Stimulus range bias describes the influence on subjective evaluations of the range of stimuli available to the test observer, with range being the minimum and maximum available glare source luminance in the current context. For the glare source, an artificial window, there were three ranges, having maximum luminances of 5 106, 7288 and 9469 cd/m2. The results suggest that luminance range had a significant effect on settings made, sufficient to change settings by an amount equivalent to one step of a Hopkinson-like discomfort sensation scale. The mean luminance associated with just intolerable discomfort with the low range was less than that associated with just uncomfortable with the high range. Past experiments have used direct control, where the observer makes the adjustment directly, and indirect control, where the observer instructs the experimenter to make the adjustment actions. Both methods were used in the current experiment. It was found that range bias was larger when using direct control than with indirect control. These findings contribute to an understanding of why different studies of discomfort glare have reported different results and hence proposed different discomfort models.
Replicating scientific findings is a fundamental aspect of research. However, in studies of discomfort due to glare, it is difficult to make comparisons between the results of different experiments since the statistical tests usuallyreported do not allow independent findings to be directly compared to each other. Here we present an alternative Bayesian approach that can address this problem. To show how this approach works, we performed a laboratory test with 55 participants to validate the effect of order bias previously detected in a similar study evaluating discomfort due to glare but, this time, under a large luminous source. Using the luminance adjustment procedure, the glare source was varied to meet four sensations of discomfort due to glare. Adjustments were performed under three different order sequences: ascending, descending, and randomised. Test participants provided glare settings using a newly proposed evaluation scale. The effect of order bias detected in the original study was compared to the data obtained with the same methodological procedure in the new experiment using Bayesian inferential tests. The results showed a close replication, highlighting that the order bias effect found in the original study was also present in the new experiment. The wide application of Bayesian methods in thedesign and analysis of experimental studies may improve the accuracy and validity of glare models.