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Observation of Light-by-Light Scattering in Ultraperipheral Pb+Pb Collisions with the ATLAS Detector.

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This Letter describes the observation of the light-by-light scattering process, γγ→γγ, in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV. The analysis is conducted using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.73  nb^{-1}, collected in November 2018 by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Light-by-light scattering candidates are selected in events with two photons produced exclusively, each with transverse energy E_{T}^{γ}>3  GeV and pseudorapidity |η_{γ}|<2.4, diphoton invariant mass above 6 GeV, and small diphoton transverse momentum and acoplanarity. After applying all selection criteria, 59 candidate events are observed for a background expectation of 12±3 events. The observed excess of events over the expected background has a significance of 8.2 standard deviations. The measured fiducial cross section is 78±13(stat)±7(syst)±3(lumi)  nb.

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