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Facile integration of low-cost black phosphorus in solution-processed organic solar cells with improved fill factor and device efficiency


Black phosphorus (BP) as a promising two-dimensional (2D) material has gained great attention in nanoelectronic devices because of its intrinsic semiconductor characteristics. However, the poor material availability and solution processability have been major roadblocks that hinder its wider application in microelectronics. Herein, readily available, lost-cost BP was utilized as an effective component that was integrated via a facile solution process for the fabrication of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). An impressive fill factor (FF) of 74.2% and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.5% were realized in the OSCs incorporating 10 wt% of BP in the active layer of the benchmark polymer donor PTB7-Th and PC71BM acceptor, corresponding to a 20% PCE enhancement compared to the BP-free binary devices. The efficiency enhancement can be attributed to BP's high hole carrier mobility that facilitates better carrier extraction and suppression of the recombination. BP has been further demonstrated to be effective in additional solar cells based on other photovoltaic (PV) materials, including non-fullerene OSCs. The successful incorporation of the inexpensive BP in the solution-based fabrication of OSCs opens the door for its application in high performance, low cost flexible electronics.

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