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Galectin-1 Co-clusters CD43/CD45 on Dendritic Cells and Induces Cell Activation and Migration through Syk and Protein Kinase C Signaling*

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Galectin-1 is a galactoside-binding lectin expressed in multiple tissues that has pleiotropic immunomodulatory functions. We previously showed that galectin-1 activates human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) and triggers a specific genetic program that up-regulates DC migration through the extracellular matrix, an integral property of mucosal DCs. Here, we identify the galectin-1 receptors on MDDCs and immediate downstream effectors of galectin-1-induced MDDC activation and migration. Galectin-1 binding to surface CD43 and CD45 on MDDCs induced an unusual unipolar co-clustering of these receptors and activates a dose-dependent calcium flux that is abrogated by lactose. Using a kinome screen and a systems biology approach, we identified Syk and protein kinase C tyrosine kinases as mediators of the DC activation effects of galectin-1. Galectin-1, but not lipopolysaccharide, stimulated Syk phosphorylation and recruitment of phosphorylated Syk to the CD43 and CD45 co-cluster on MDDCs. Inhibitors of Syk and protein kinase C signaling abrogated galectin-1-induced DC activation as monitored by interleukin-6 production; and MMP-1, -10, and -12 gene up-regulation; and enhanced migration through the extracellular matrix. The latter two are specific features of galectin-1-activated DCs. Interestingly, we also found that galectin-1 can prime DCs to respond more quickly to low dose lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Finally, we underscore the biological relevance of galectin-1-enhanced DC migration by showing that intradermal injection of galectin-1 in MRL-fas mice, which have a defect in skin DC emigration, increased the in vivo migration of dermal DCs to draining lymph nodes.

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