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Nb-based superconducting silicon interconnect fabric for cryogenic electronics

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Quantum computing for real world applications requires large arrays of qubits. This requires advanced integration technologies. In this work, we propose a simple integration method with fine interconnect pitch (10 μm) and close spacing that can overcome the large input and output (I/O) and high wiring level requirements of very large scale of quantum circuits. A system-on-wafer (SoW) packaging concept called superconducting silicon interconnect fabric (superconducting-IF), based on silicon interconnect fabric (Si-IF), is proposed, with the help of a Au interlayer technology onto the superconducting-IF. The fine-pitch and die-to-wafer-scale Au interlayer is the first demonstration of direct metal-metal thermocompression bonding (TCB) that is optimized for superconducting applications without the use of solders. The developed Au interlayer integration technology is demonstrated to be Josephson-junction-compatible (<150 C), mechanically robust (>30 MPa), and electrically reliable down to 2 K. The mechanical strength of the Au interlayer integration method is optimized through shear tests with a shear force around 150 N on 2 2 mm2 dies. The transition temperature (Tc) of Nb, which is at 9 K, is experimentally verified to be unchanged after each fabrication process. Electrical and temperature cycling measurements on over 20 bonded dies of large-pitch Kelvin structures as well as fine-pitch daisy chain structures reveal reliable connections in the low-temperature regime. This work pushes quantum computing a step closer to realize its potential through 3D integration of a very large scale of quantum circuits with a high density of I/O (>10 000 per mm2) as well as high wiring capability and without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics.

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