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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Reliability of the I-Quad and Its Predictive Utility in a Modified Dictator Game


Implicit cognition refers to experiences and beliefs that influence one’s behaviors but are not readily available for conscious awareness. Since it is not a conscious process, assessing implicit cognition requires indirect measures such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz. The classic IAT measures two distinct associations, but the current scoring algorithm produces a single statistic based on reaction times. This statistic merges information from both associations such that we cannot tell which association is driving the effect. The Quadruple Process Model (Quad), devised by Conrey, Sherman, Gawronski, Hugenberg, and Groom, provides more informative statistics regarding implicit associations at the group level. In the current study, we aimed to apply the Quad at an individual level and evaluate its effectiveness through employing a test of reliability and predictive utility through a modified dictator game. We provided evidence that the i-Quad is reliable in a test-retest scenario. We also provided support for further research of the i-Quad parameters and their role in predicting prosocial behavior. Our findings add to the growing body of literature that suggests implicit biases can have a significant but subtle effect on how individuals treat one another, especially for members of minority and stigmatized groups. Moreover, the use of the i-Quad may provide deeper insights into the ways in which implicit biases affect those around us in subtle ways that we may not be aware of.

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