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Evaluating Visual Field Progression in Advanced Glaucoma Using Trend Analysis of Targeted Mean Total Deviation.

  • Author(s): Miki, Atsuya;
  • Okazaki, Tomoyuki;
  • Weinreb, Robert N;
  • Morota, Misa;
  • Tanimura, Aki;
  • Kawashima, Rumi;
  • Usui, Shinichi;
  • Matsushita, Kenji;
  • Nishida, Kohji
  • et al.

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Trend analysis of visual field (VF) global indices may underestimate the rate of progression in severe glaucoma because of the influence of test points without detectable sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we compared the rates of change of VF global indices with and without exclusion of undetectable points at various disease stages.

Materials and methods

Six hundred and forty-eight eyes of 366 glaucoma patients with 8 or more reliable 30-2 standard automated perimetry over more than 2 years were enrolled. We calculated targeted mean total deviation (TMTD) by averaging total deviation except points which were consistently undetectable in 3 baseline tests. Eyes were classified as early (≥-6 dB), moderate (-6 dB to -12 dB), advanced (-12 dB to -20 dB), and severe (<-20 dB) based on baseline mean deviation (MD). The rates of change of MD and TMTD in each stage were statistically compared.


Mean age±SD at baseline was 56.9±11.9 years. The MD slope (-0.34 dB/y) in severe glaucoma was significantly slower than TMTD slope (-0.42 dB/y, P=0.028) and was slower than MD slopes in the other stages. Difference between MD slopes and TMTD slopes was most prominent in eyes with MD values less than -25 dB (P=0.002).


Undetectable locations in eyes with severe glaucoma may underestimate the rates of VF progression. Trend analysis of TMTD rather than global indices offers a practical and simple approach for alleviating underestimation of VF progression in severe glaucoma.

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