Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Irvine

UC Irvine Previously Published Works bannerUC Irvine

Macromolecular crystal growth as revealed by atomic force microscopy.


Direct visualization of macromolecular crystal growth using atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool in the delineation of mechanisms and the kinetics of the growth process. It has further allowed us to evaluate the wide variety of impurities that are incorporated into crystals of proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses. We can, using AFM, image the defects and imperfections that afflict these crystals, the impurity layers that poison their surfaces, and the consequences of various factors on morphological development. All of these can be recorded under normal growth conditions, in native mother liquors, over time intervals ranging from minutes to days, and at the molecular level.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View