Factorizations of cycles and multi-noded rooted trees
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Factorizations of cycles and multi-noded rooted trees

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In this paper, we study factorizations of cycles. The main result is that under certain condition, the number of ways to factor a $d$-cycle into a product of cycles of prescribed lengths is $d^{r-2}.$ To prove our result, we first define a new class of combinatorial objects, multi-noded rooted trees, which generalize rooted trees. We find the cardinality of this new class which with proper parameters is exactly $d^{r-2}.$ The main part of this paper is the proof that there is a bijection from factorizations of a $d$-cycle to multi-noded rooted trees via factorization graphs. This implies the desired formula. The factorization problem we consider has its origin in geometry, and is related to the study of a special family of Hurwitz numbers: pure-cycle Hurwitz numbers. Via the standard translation of Hurwitz numbers into group theory, our main result is equivalent to the following: when the genus is $0$ and one of the ramification indices is $d,$ the degree of the covers, the pure-cycle Hurwitz number is $d^{r-3},$ where $r$ is the number of branch points.

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