Product Vacua and Boundary State Models in d Dimensions
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Product Vacua and Boundary State Models in d Dimensions

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We introduce and analyze a class of quantum spin models defined on d-dimensional lattices Lambda subset of Z^d, which we call `Product Vacua with Boundary States' (PVBS). We characterize their ground state spaces on arbitrary finite volumes and study the thermodynamic limit. Using the martingale method, we prove that the models have a gapped excitation spectrum on Z^d except for critical values of the parameters. For special values of the parameters we show that the excitation spectrum is gapless. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the spectrum to the existence and orientation of boundaries. This sensitivity can be explained by the presence or absence of edge excitations. In particular, we study a PVBS models on a slanted half-plane and show that it has gapless edge states but a gapped excitation spectrum in the bulk.

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