Weight loss and diabetes are new risk factors for the development of invasive aspergillosis infection in non-immunocompromized humans.
- Author(s): Ghanaat, Farhad
- Tayek, John A
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901980/pdf/nihms935038.pdf
Well-established risk factors for aspergillosis include HIV, cancer, recent corticosteroid (prednisone) therapy, chemotherapy, or thoracic surgery. Non-established risk factors may include weight loss and a history of diabetes. Twenty-three patients without the classical risk factors for IA were identified retrospectively at Harbor UCLA Medical Center by discharge diagnosis over a 20 year period (1992-2012). None of the well-known risk factors are for Invasive Apergillious (IA). A history of weight loss was seen in 66% of the patients with IA (15 of 23). The weight loss ranged from 3.3 lbs to 43 lbs. In patients with weight loss the average loss was 22±3 lbs (mean±SEM). In this small group of patients with IA, diabetes was seen in 8 of the 23 (34%), which is significantly higher than the 19% incidence of diabetes seen in 100 patients with severe sepsis (p<0.05). Likewise, the 34% incidence of diabetes was higher than the 21% incidence reported in immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillus (IA) infection (p<0.05). A reduced serum albumin concentration was seen in 33% of the study patients, which was less common than the 87% incidence seen in patients with severe sepsis or candidaemia (54%). Seventeen of the 23 patients had pulmonary involvement. While no one had a well-established risk factor for aspergillious, four patients had alcoholism as a potential risk factor. Eleven of the 23 (48%) died during the hospital stay despite antifungal therapy. Immunocompromised patients are known to have a mortality rate of approximately 45% for pulmonary or disseminated disease. Conclusion:The incidence of diabetes was greater than seen in immunocompromised patients and may be considered an additional risk factor for the development of aspergillois infection. In addition, a history of weight loss should increase the suspicion for the diagnosis of IA in otherwise a non-immunocompromised patient. Early recognition and treatment of aspergillosis in the non-immunocompromised patient may improve outcome. Weight loss and diabetes should be added to the list of well-known risk factors for invasive aspergillosis and its high mortality rate.